In the last several years, a variety of behaviour-focused approaches have been introduced that use design and technology to stimulate people to be virtuous (e.g., Tromp, 2013). An example is nudge theory, a concept based on the distinction between two systems of human thought: the automatic, which is rapid and instinctive, and the reflective, which is deliberate and self-conscious. According to nudge theory, an individual’s automatic decisions can be “nudged” by altering the environment in which such decisions are made (e.g., Lee, Kiesler, & Forlizzi, 2011). For example, placing fresh fruits at eye level in a canteen can stimulate people to choose this healthy alternative. In their book on nudge theory, Thaler and Sunstein (2008) typify nudge as “libertarian paternalism” because it aims to stimulate better choices without forcing people to make them (i.e., they can still decide to choose an unhealthy snack).
Positive Design: An Introduction to Design for Subjective Well-Being